TRIPOLI/BRUSSELS, March 12 (Reuters) --Europe and the United States stepped up diplomatic pressure on Muammar Gaddafi to quit, while on the ground his forces used their superior strength to press their advantage against rebels.
President Barack Obama said on Friday the United States and its allies were “tightening the noose” around Gaddafi and European Union leaders meeting in Brussels said they would consider all options to force the Libyan leader to step down.
However, the 27 leaders meeting in Brussels stopped short of endorsing air strikes, a no-fly zone or other military-backed means to achieve that goal. Libyan rebels said their three-week-old insurrection could fail without a no-fly zone.
The summit sidestepped a British and French initiative for a U.N. Security Council resolution that would authorise a no-fly zone.
|Garbage is piled up in front of a caricature of Muammar Gaddafi in the rebel stronghold of Benghazi March 11. Reuters
They also would not back French President Nicolas Sarkozy's call to follow his lead and recognise the National Libyan Council as the country's legitimate authority, or his call for “defensive” air strikes against Gaddafi's forces if they used chemical weapons or warplanes against civilians.
Libya suspended diplomatic relations with France.
Obama, accused by critics of reacting too slowly, told a news conference he believed international sanctions, an arms embargo and other measures already in place were having an impact but also said a no-fly zone remained an option. “Across the board we are slowly tightening the noose on Gaddafi. He is more and more isolated internationally,” he said.
“I have not taken any options off the table.” Soon after he spoke, the U.S. Treasury Department said it had extended a freeze on assets to Gaddafi's wife, four of his sons and four senior officials in his government.
Tanks and air power
Gaddafi's forces, with air supremacy and a big advantage in tanks, appeared to be maintaining the momentum on the ground.
The sound of explosions and small arms fire came from the oil port of Ras Lanuf on Friday as government troops landed from the sea, backed by tanks and air power.
Rebels had advanced to the town of Bin Jawad about 60 km (38 miles) west of Ras Lanuf a week ago, but have been driven back across the strip of desert and scrub. Though out-gunned, they have kept up stiff resistance.
“Ras Lanuf is a ghost town. There are skirmishes between rebels and Gaddafi forces going back and forth,” said rebel captain Mustafa al-Agoury, adding that rebels were positioned on the east and Gaddafi's forces on the west of the town.
Neither side had full control. Libyan state television said the town was cleared of “armed gangs” opposed to Gaddafi and a spokesman for the rebel movement, Hamid al-Hasi, told Al Arabiya that Ras Lanuf was back in rebel hands.
Gaddafi's warplanes were carrying out air strikes seemingly unhindered by insurgent anti-aircraft guns mounted on pick-up trucks.
Many rebels were angry at international inaction. “Where is the West? How are they helping? What are they doing,” shouted one angry fighter.
In Tripoli, Libyan security forces used teargas and fired in the air to disperse worshippers near a mosque before they could even attempt any protest, a Libyan man said, citing witnesses.It was impossible to verify reports about what was happening in the Tajoura district of Tripoli because foreign journalists were prevented from reporting from the area and local anti-Gaddafi activists were not answering phone calls.
The revolt in Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) west of Tripoli and held by rebels for days against fierce attacks, appeared to have been crushed.
Foreign journalists brought to the city centre by government forces on Friday saw buildings scorched, patches of fresh paint and loyalists chanting “I love Gaddafi”.
Hotel burned out
A hotel on the square that had been the rebel command centre stood burned out, now guarded by Gaddafi militiamen. Facades not covered by large cloths were pockmarked by bullets from days of battles around the space the rebels called Martyrs' Square.
|A Libyan army soldier gestures in front of a building, draped in green cloth by supporters of leader Muammar Gaddafi, at Martyr's Square in the centre of Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) west of the capital Tripoli, March 11. REUTERS
“There were bad guys inside. There were 35-40 guys there yesterday with Kalashnikovs and big guns,” said Waleed, one militiaman, pointing towards the building's ruined facade. “We cannot live without Gaddafi. He is the king of Africa, not just Libya.” The only town holding out in western Libya was Misrata, about 200 km (125 miles) east of Tripoli. It was calm on Friday, but rebels said they were expecting an attack in the near future.
Libya's insurgent leader said any delay in imposing a no-fly zone could let Gaddafi regain control. “We ask the international community to shoulder their responsibilities,” Mustafa Abdel-Jalil, head of the rebels' National Libyan Council, told the BBC.
“The Libyans are being cleansed by Gaddafi's air force. We asked for a no-fly zone to be imposed from day one, we also want a sea embargo,” he said. About 15,000 worshippers gathered outside the courthouse that has become the council's headquarters in the rebel stronghold of Benghazi.
Arabs meet on Libya as Gaddafi pressure mounts
CAIRO, March 12, (AFP) -The Arab League was preparing to hold key talks on the conflict in member state Libya Saturday, predicted to back a no-fly zone to ramp up the pressure on Libyan leader Muamar Gaddafi.
Top officials in the pan-Arab organisation said two envoys from Tripoli would be excluded from the meeting, held as Kadhafi's forces step up their attacks on rebels.
“No Libyans will attend the meeting based on the decision of the Arab League on March 2 to suspend Libya from meetings,” Hisham Youssef, chief of staff of Arab League secretary general Amr Mussa, told AFP.
Foreign ministers and representatives of the 22-member bloc would discuss “the developments of the situation in Libya to find ways to end the bloodshed in Libya,” Youssef said.
The foreign minister of European Union chair Hungary, Janos Martonyi, said Friday that “the expectation is that they will support a no-fly zone under some conditions.””The best thing I think would be that a concerted action would be planned and implemented with the countries of the Arab League,” he added.