sounds at 'Youth Live'
The sounds of ear-splitting guitar riffs, adrenaline pumping drum
beats and pulse raising bass fill-ins are about to erupt in the
city and cause all rock fanatics to simply... get rocking!
powerhouse 'Ezra' will take the stage, together with the raw talents
of 'Mute' and 'Hi-Octane' to kick off an electrifying evening. Together
with this line up of 'rock-greats', making their debut into the
local rock scene is 'Reap', an amateur, energetic rock band who
claim that they make the streets resound with their music.
All this happens
at 'Youth Live 2003', the first of a string of annual rock concerts
aimed at creating greater opportunity for youth rock bands. The
organizers of 'Youth Live 2003', 'The Kollupitiya Methodist Church
Youth Fellowship' say, "There's something we want to say and
we want you to hear it!"
The show is
scheduled to begin with the sounds of 'Hi-Octane'. The thunderous
clashes of 'Mute' will follow as they rev it up, paving the way
for 'Reap' to take the spotlight. Reap features Chrishantha (CC)
on vocals, Pradeep and Rajind (TJ) on lead and rhythm, Nirmala on
acoustic, Timothy (Timmy) on bass and Lahiru on drums. Bringing
the evening to an earth shattering climax will be the winners of
TNL Onstage 2002, Ezra with Billy on lead and vocals, Dale and Joshua
on rhythm, Yohan on bass and Romesh on drums.
2003' happens on Saturday, September 6, at the Methodist College
Auditorium, Colombo 3, from 7.00 p.m. onwards. Tickets priced at
Rs. 150/ are available at the entrance and at the KMC office, tel.
573280 (office hours). For more information call 071 2285653.
Gear up to
be entertained. 'Youth Live 2003' is about to erupt in style!
chipset - The traffic cops
The system chipset and controllers
are the logic circuits that are the intelligence of the motherboard.
They are the "traffic cops" of the computer, controlling
data transfers between all the integrated parts within the computer.
Since data flow is such a critical issue in the operation and performance
of so many parts of the computer, even though the fact is rarely
appreciated, the chipset is one of the few components that have
a truly major impact on your PC's quality, features and speed. As
one of the most important decisions made by anyone choosing or building
a new PC is which processor is desired, the key to making the decision
of what type, speed and even what number of processors to use is
the motherboard, and in particular the chipset that controls it.
is a "chipset"? It sounds like something very complex
but really is not, although many of the functions it performs are.
A chipset is just a set of chips (duhh!). At one time, most of the
functions of the chipset were performed by multiple, smaller controller
chips. There was a separate chip (often more than one) for each
function like controlling the cache memory, performing direct memory
access (DMA), handling interrupts, transferring data over the I/0
bus, etc. Over time these chips were integrated to form a single
set of chips, or a chipset, that implements the various control
features on the motherboard. This went parallel with the evolution
of the microprocessor itself because at one time many of the features
on a Pentium for example were on separate chips.
There are several
advantages to integration but the two primary ones are cost reduction
and better compatibility because the more things that are done by
a single chip or group of chips from one manufacturer, the simpler
the design is and the less chance of a problem. Sometimes the chipset
chips are referred to as ASICs (application-specific integration
circuits), which I suppose they are, although there are many other
types of ASICs as well.
chipset in most cases does not integrate all of the circuitry needed
by the motherboard. Most motherboards have the following controllers
* The system
* The keyboard controller, which manages not only the keyboard but
also the integrated PS/2 mouse
* The Super I/0 chip, which handles input and output from the serial
ports, parallel port, floppy disks, and in some cases, the IDE hard
disks as well
* Additional built-in controllers that are normally found in expansion
cards: video, sound, network and SCSI controllers being the most
BIOS stand for Basic Input/Output System, although the full
term is used very infrequently. The system BIOS is the lowest-level
software in the computer; it acts as an interface between the hardware
(especially the chipset and processor) and the operating system.
The BIOS provides access to the system hardware and enables the
creation of the higher-level operating systems (DOS, Windows 95,
etc.) that you use to run your applications. The BIOS is also responsible
for allowing you to control your computer's hardware settings, for
booting up the machine when you turn on the power or hit the reset
button, and various other system functions.
the BIOS plays many different and critical operations within your
computer, it is most famous for the BIOS setup programme, the little
built-in utility that lets you set the many functions that control
how your computer works. Most people confuse the BIOS with the CMOS
which of course is inaccurate. CMOS refers to the technology used
to create the tiny memory where the BIOS settings are stored.
The system cache is responsible for a great deal of the system
performance improvement of today's PCs. The cache is a buffer of
sorts between the very fast processor and the relatively slow memory
that serves it. (The memory is not really slow, it's just that the
processor is much faster.) The presence of the cache allows the
processor to do its work while waiting for memory far less often
than it otherwise would.
There are in
fact several different "layers" of cache in a modern PC,
each acting as a buffer for recently-used information to improve
performance, but when "the cache" is mentioned without
qualifiers, it normally refers to the "secondary" or "level
2" cache that is placed between the processor and system RAM.
Here ends our
discussion about the motherboard and its various components. Next
week we will move onto the talk about secondary storage devices,
but in the meantime, don't hesitate to write in with news, views,
criticisms, ideas and questions at the usual e-mail address.
DNA computer revealed!
The first game-playing DNA computer - an enzyme-powered tic-tac-toe
machine - has been revealed. The human player makes his or her moves
by dropping DNA into 3 by 3 square of wells that make up the board.
The device then uses a complex mixture of DNA enzymes to determine
where it should place its nought or cross, and signals its move
with a green glow.
dubbed MAYA, was developed by Milan Stojanovic, at Columbia University
in New York, and Darko Stefanovic, at the University of New Mexico
in Albuquerque. Kobi Benenson, who works on other DNA approaches
at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, says the work demonstrates
the most complex use of molecules as logic gates to date, and "represents
a significant advance in DNA computing."
The human player
has nine types of DNA strand, each with a sequence specific to a
particular square. To make a move, one type of strand is added to
all the squares, as all must be aware of the choice.